Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology
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The Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP) is the largest non-university institute in the field of low temperature plasmas, their basics and technical applications in Europe. The institute carries out research and development from idea to prototype. The topics focus on the needs of the market. At present, plasmas for materials and energy as well as for environment and health are the focus of interest.

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A simplified voltage model in GMAW

The relation between the voltage and the arc length in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is an important characteristic. It depends on a complex distribution of the electric conductivity along the current path and does not depend on the arc length only. Based on electric measurements and the arc length determination from high-speed arc images, a simplified electrical model is introduced for a pulsed GMAW process. It shows the relation of voltage, current, arc length and free wire length and considers also their temporal evolution during the process in particular during the high-current phase. Previous detailed studies of the sheath voltage and the resistances in the contact tube, the free wire, the droplet depot and the arc in pulsed processes with changing arc lengths have been used. The electrical model shows a sufficient agreement with measurements also for parameter ranges of the wire feed speed and the contact-to-workpiece-distance (CTWD) which have not been considered in the model deduction. This data set includes the model parameters, examples of arc images, measurements of voltage, current and arc length as well as model predictions for voltage and arc length in comparison with the measurements.

Release Date
Permanent Identifier (DOI)
Permanent Identifier (URI)
Is supplementing
Plasma Source Name
Plasma Source Application
Plasma Source Specification
Plasma Source Properties

Welding parameters: pulsed process in DC-mode, one-drop-per-pulse process, wire 1.2 mm in diameter, wire feed speed 3 to 6 m/min, welding speed 30 cm/min, contact tip setback 3 mm, contact-to-workpiece-distance (CTWD) 9 to 21 mm, peak current (I) 300 to 650 A, base current 25 A, pulse frequency 50 to 130 Hz, pulse duration 1 to 1.5 ms

Plasma Medium Name
Plasma Medium Properties

Shielding gas Ar+2.5%CO2, gas flow rate 15 l/min, atmospheric pressure

Plasma Target Name
Plasma Target Properties
Mild steel: wire material G3Si1, base material S235
Plasma Target Procedure
Bead-on-plate welding
Plasma Diagnostics Name
Plasma Diagnostics Properties

Welding current and total voltage measurement by a current probe (Tektronix TCP404XL) and a differential probe (Tektronix TDP0500) and recorded by an oscilloscope (Tektronix DPO4104).

Arc and wire image recording with a monochrome high-speed camera MotionPro Y4, frame rate of 6000 fps, exposure time of 16 µm, parallel to the workpiece and in welding direction, synchronous recording through two different narrow-band spectral filters with the central wavelengths of 437nm and 811nm to image the radiation of the metal vapour and those of the argon shielding gas.

Plasma Diagnostics Procedure

The total voltage was measured between the contact tube of the welding torch, where a specific junction has been mounted, and the workpiece.

An image processing via Matlab has been used to treat arc images recorded with the two different filters, to reconstruct the metal vapour range and the shielding gas range of the arc and to estimate the arc column length.

Public Access Level
Contact Name
Uhrlandt, Dirk
Contact Email

Data and Resources